Micro Penis (Small Penis)
Micropenis, small penis or short penis, is defined as the length of the penis in the tense state is smaller than the standard deviation from the mean value that should be according to age.Micropenis is a term used to describe the normal structure and appearance of the penis, but smaller than normal.Micropenia should not be confused with the buried penis and penis agenesis.
What Is Normal Penis?
In normal men, the size of the penis varies from person to person. The criteria for defining a penis of sufficient size are as follows: The penis allows the person to urinate while standing, is sufficient for sexual intercourse, and does not create shame when seen socially by others. However, there are no criteria for defining inadequate penis sizes.
Micropenis is a finding of examination. In order to decide whether the penis is small, it is necessary to know the stretchedpenis length. To measure the stretchedpenis length, the penis is stretched and the length of the penis from the root to the tip is measured with a ruler from the upper part of the penis.
Penis length is below the standard deviation of the penis is called a small penis (micropenis). The average penis length in people older than 16 years is 13 centimeters. Penises that are less than 9.3 centimeters while stretched are called micropenis or small penis.
How Does Penis Development Occur?
The penis grows in the mother’s womb and after birth it grows with the effect of many hormones. The most effective hormone in the growth of the penis is testosterone, the male hormone. Testosterone hormone turns into dihydrotestosterone hormone, which is a more effective form of it, allows the growth of the penis. Therefore, the decrease in testosterone hormone, the decrease of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone or the unresponsiveness of the testosterone hormone to the penile tissue causes a small penis.
What are the Causes of Micro Penis?
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: It is the most common cause of small penis.GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) is secreted from the brain called hypothalamus.This hormone causes the release of FSH (Follicular Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) hormones from the pituitary gland.FSH and LH hormones lead to the release of testosterone, the male hormone from Leydig cells found in the testis.Testosterone is the hormone that developsthe penis.Decrease in the release of GnRH, FSH and LH hormones for various reasons causes the disorder in the production of testosterone hormone.Reduction of testosterone release leads to a small penis.
Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism: Another reason for the small penis. It is a status in which Leydig cells found in testis and producing testosterone hormone do not respond to GnRH, FSH and LH hormones. Therefore, the hormone testosterone cannot be released and the small penis is formed.
Unresponsiveness of Penile Tissue to Testosterone Hormone: Another reason for the small penis is the insensitivity of the penis tissue to the testosterone. Testosterone should be converted to dihydrotestosterone(DHET) by five alpha reductase enzymes for the development of the penis. In the lack of this enzyme, testosterone cannot turn into DHET and does not lead the development of the penis.
Small Peniswith Unknown Causes: The reason for some small penis is unknown. In these individuals, penis development usually reaches normal levels in adelosan age.
Chromosome / Genetic Disorders: Some chromosomes or genetic disorders may cause small penis.Hypospadias with undescended testicles can be combined with the small penis.
How is the Treatment of the Small Penis?
The treatment of the small penis depends on the underlying causes.If the small penis is due to lack of the hormones secreted from pituitary or hypothalamus is the hormones should be replaced.
There are aesthetic corrective operations forthe micropenis which are not related to hormone deficiency in adult ages.